Кип и а литература: Список литературы

Список литературы

Список литературы

Генератор кроссвордов

Генератор титульных листов

Таблица истинности ONLINE

Прочие ONLINE сервисы

 

Список литературы

1. Авилова, Наталья Васильевна Детали, механизмы и конструирование измерительных приборов. Учебное пособие по курсовому проектированию / Авилова Наталья Васильевна. — М.: Донской государственный технический университет (ДГТУ), 2008. — 2357 c.
2. Автоматизация контроля электрических параметров радиодеталей. — М.: ЦНИИ Электроника, 1976. — 39 c.
3. Автоматизация проектирования аналого-цифровых устройств / ред. Э.И. Гитис. — М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1987. — 184 c.
4. Агеев, В. И. Контрольно-измерительные приборы судовых энергетических установок (устройство, эксплуатация, эффективность). Справочник / В.И. Агеев. — М.: Судостроение, 1985. — 416 c.
5. Англо-русский словарь по автоматике и контрольно-измерительным приборам. — М.: Гостехиздат, 2012. — 380 c.
6. Англо-русский словарь по автоматике, кибернетике и контрольно-измерительным приборам. — М.: Советская Энциклопедия, 1991. — 428 c.
7. Бахтиаров, Г. Д. Аналого-цифровые преобразователи / Г.Д. Бахтиаров, В.Д. Малинин, В.П. Школин. — М.: Советское радио, 1980. — 280 c.
8. Белоногов, Г.Г. Автоматизация процессов накопления, поиска и обобщения информации / Г.Г. Белоногов, А.П. Новоселов. — М.: Наука, 1979. — 256 c.
9. Воронин, Ю. В. Контроль измерительных приборов и специального инструмента / Ю.В. Воронин, А.А. Рубцов. — М.: Машиностроение, 1981. — 200 c.
10. Гельман, М. М. Аналого-цифровые преобразователи для информационно-измерительных систем / М.М. Гельман. — М.: Издательство стандартов, 1989. — 320 c.
11. Гитис, Э. И. Аналого-цифровые преобразователи. Учебное пособие / Э.И. Гитис, Е.А. Пискулов. — М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1981. — 360 c.
12. Гольдин, Б. М. Автоматизация контроля радиоэлектронного оборудования судов / Б.М. Гольдин, И.Б. Гуткин. — М.: Судостроение, 1990. — 240 c.
13. Грибанов, Дмитрий Дмитриевич Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты. Учебник для начального профессионального образования / Грибанов Дмитрий Дмитриевич. — М.: Академия (Academia), 2013. — 2147 c.
14. Грибанов, Дмитрий Дмитриевич Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты. Учебник для студентов учреждений среднего профессионального образования / Грибанов Дмитрий Дмитриевич. — М.: Академия (Academia), 2017. — 860 c.
15. Григорьев, Сергей Васильевич Гидравлические машины, системы автоматического регулирования и контрольно-измерительные приборы нефтегазовой отрасли. Учебное пособие / Григорьев Сергей Васильевич. — М.: Воронежский государственный технический университет (ВГТУ), 2010. —
1739
c.
16. Дьяконов, В. П. Измерительные приборы и массовые электронные измерения / В.П. Дьяконов. — М.: Солон-Пресс, 2010. — 2675 c.
17. Ковбас, Ю. И. Измерительные приборы и контроль за их использованием в торговле / Ю.И. Ковбас. — М.: Государственное издательство юридической литературы, 1992. — 46 c.
18. Кондратьев, В. В. Автоматизация контроля цифровых функциональных модулей / В.В. Кондратьев, Б.Н. Махалин. — М.: Радио и связь, 1990. — 152 c.
19. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты / С.А. Зайцев и др. — М.: Академия, 2012. — 464 c.
20. Либерман, Н. И. Контрольно-измерительные приборы в полиграфии / Н.И. Либерман. — М.: Книга, 2011. — 288 c.
21. Мелик-Шахназаров, А. М. Измерительные приборы со встроенными микропроцессорами / А.М. Мелик-Шахназаров, М.Г. Маркатун, В.А. Дмитриев. — М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1985. — 240 c.
22. Никамин, В. А. Аналого-цифровые и цифро-аналоговые преобразователи / В.А. Никамин. — М.: КОРОНА принт, Альтекс — А, 2003. — 224 c.
23. Нюрманн, Д. Измерительные приборы для домашней лаборатории / Д. Нюрманн. — М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1991. — 64 c.
24. Отсутствует Грузовые автомобили. Освещение, сигнализация, контрольно-измерительные приборы / Отсутствует. — Москва: РГГУ, 2013. — 3784 c.
25. Отсутствует Жестяницкие работы. Изделия, измерения и измерительные приборы / Отсутствует. — Москва: Мир, 2013. — 3885 c.
26. Рассел, Джесси Аналого-цифровой преобразователь / Джесси Рассел. — М.: VSD, 2012. — 361 c.
27. Собкин, Б. Л. Автоматизация проектирования аналого-цифровых приборов на микропроцессорах / Б.Л. Собкин. — М.: Машиностроение, 1986. — 128 c.
28. Соколов, Б. А. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов / Б.А. Соколов. — М.: Академия, 2012. — 64 c.
29. Соколов, Борис Александрович Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов. Учебное пособие / Соколов Борис Александрович. — М.: Академия (Academia), 2012. — 2209 c.
30. Соловцов, В. К. Контрольно-измерительные приборы / В.К. Соловцов. — М.: Профтехиздат, 1976. — 236 c.


Внимание: данные, отмеченные красным цветом, являются недостоверными!

Книги, использованные при создании данного списка литературы:

Авилова Наталья ВасильевнаДетали, механизмы и конструирование измерительных приборов. Учебное пособие по курсовому проектированию

[автор не указан]Автоматизация контроля электрических параметров радиодеталей

ред. Гитис, Э.И.Автоматизация проектирования аналого-цифровых устройств

Агеев В. И.Контрольно-измерительные приборы судовых энергетических установок (устройство, эксплуатация, эффективность). Справочник

ArrayАнгло-русский словарь по автоматике и контрольно-измерительным приборам

[автор не указан]Англо-русский словарь по автоматике, кибернетике и контрольно-измерительным приборам

Бахтиаров Г. Д., Малинин В. Д., Школин В. П.Аналого-цифровые преобразователи

Белоногов, Г.Г.; Новоселов, А.П.Автоматизация процессов накопления, поиска и обобщения информации

Воронин Ю. В., Рубцов А. А.Контроль измерительных приборов и специального инструмента

Гельман М. М.Аналого-цифровые преобразователи для информационно-измерительных систем

Гитис Э. И., Пискулов Е. А.Аналого-цифровые преобразователи. Учебное пособие

Гольдин Б. М., Гуткин И. Б.Автоматизация контроля радиоэлектронного оборудования судов

Грибанов Дмитрий ДмитриевичКонтрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты. Учебник для начального профессионального образования

Грибанов Дмитрий ДмитриевичКонтрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты. Учебник для студентов учреждений среднего профессионального образования

Григорьев Сергей ВасильевичГидравлические машины, системы автоматического регулирования и контрольно-измерительные приборы нефтегазовой отрасли. Учебное пособие

Дьяконов В. П.Измерительные приборы и массовые электронные измерения

Ковбас Ю. И.Измерительные приборы и контроль за их использованием в торговле

Кондратьев В. В., Махалин Б. Н.Автоматизация контроля цифровых функциональных модулей

Зайцев С. А., Грибанов Д. Д., Толстов А. Н., Меркулов Р. В.Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты

Либерман Н. И.Контрольно-измерительные приборы в полиграфии

Мелик-Шахназаров А. М., Маркатун М. Г., Дмитриев В. А.Измерительные приборы со встроенными микропроцессорами

Никамин В. А.Аналого-цифровые и цифро-аналоговые преобразователи

Нюрманн Д.Измерительные приборы для домашней лаборатории

ОтсутствуетГрузовые автомобили. Освещение, сигнализация, контрольно-измерительные приборы

ОтсутствуетЖестяницкие работы. Изделия, измерения и измерительные приборы

Рассел ДжессиАналого-цифровой преобразователь

Собкин Б. Л.Автоматизация проектирования аналого-цифровых приборов на микропроцессорах

Соколов Б. А.Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов

Соколов Борис АлександровичКонтрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов. Учебное пособие

Соловцов В. К.Контрольно-измерительные приборы

В нашем каталоге

Околостуденческое

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Список литературы

Список литературы

Генератор кроссвордов

Генератор титульных листов

Таблица истинности ONLINE

Прочие ONLINE сервисы

 

Список литературы

1. Англо-русский словарь по автоматике и контрольно-измерительным приборам. — М.: Гостехиздат, 1997. — 380 c.
2. Англо-русский словарь по автоматике, кибернетике и контрольно-измерительным приборам. — М.: Советская Энциклопедия, 2015. — 428 c.
3. Беляев, М.А. Пособие для монтеров и слесарей СЦБ / М.А. Беляев. — М.: Трансжелдориздат, 2006. — 440 c.
4. Верн, Жюль Братья Кип. Воздушная деревня / Жюль Верн. — М.: Ладомир, 1994. — 414 c.
5. Грибанов, Дмитрий Дмитриевич Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты. Учебник для начального профессионального образования / Грибанов Дмитрий Дмитриевич. — М.: Академия (Academia), 2013. — 637 c.
6. Григорьев, Сергей Васильевич Гидравлические машины, системы автоматического регулирования и контрольно-измерительные приборы нефтегазовой отрасли. Учебное пособие / Григорьев Сергей Васильевич. — М.: Воронежский государственный технический университет (ВГТУ), 2010. — 406 c.
7. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и инструменты / С.А. Зайцев и др. — М.: Академия, 2012. — 464 c.
8. Либерман, Н. И. Контрольно-измерительные приборы в полиграфии / Н.И. Либерман. — М.: Книга, 2008. — 288 c.
9. Отсутствует Грузовые автомобили. Освещение, сигнализация, контрольно-измерительные приборы / Отсутствует. — Москва: СИНТЕГ, 2013. — 115 c.
10. Полосин, М. Д. Слесарь по ремонту дорожно-строительных машин и тракторов / М.Д. Полосин, Э.Г. Ронинсон. — М.: Академия, 2008. — 787 c.
11. Рассел, Джесси Слесарь КИПиА / Джесси Рассел. — М.: VSD, 2012. — 370 c.
12. Сам себе слесарь. — М.: Харвест, 2004. — 315 c.
13. Соколов, Б. А. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов / Б.А. Соколов. — М.: Академия, 2012. — 166 c.
14. Соколов, Борис Александрович Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика котлов. Учебное пособие / Соколов Борис Александрович. — М.: Академия (Academia), 2012. — 260 c.
15. Соловцов, В. К. Контрольно-измерительные приборы / В.К. Соловцов. — М.: Профтехиздат, 1995. — 236 c.


Внимание: данные, отмеченные красным цветом, являются недостоверными!

Книги, использованные при создании данного списка литературы:

В нашем каталоге

Околостуденческое

Это интересно…

Наши контакты

Жарковский Б.И. Шапкин В.В. Справочник молодого слесаря по контрольно-измерительным приборам и автоматике

Жарковский Б.И. Шапкин В.В. Справочник молодого слесаря по контрольно-измерительным приборам и автоматике

Предисловие

Автоматизация технологических производственных процессов в различных отраслях промышленности, обеспечивающая качество выпускаемой продукции, охрану труда производственного персонала и защиту окружающей среды, предполагает наличие различных средств автоматического контроля, регулирования, защиты и сигнализации.

Перспективное направление развития отечественного приборостроения определяется Государственной системой обеспечения единства измерений (ГСИ) и Государственной системой приборов (ГСП).

Большое значение в обеспечении надежной и бесперебойной эксплуатации средств КИПиА отводится эксплуатационному и ремонтному персоналу — слесарям КИПиА. Объем профессиональных знаний, умений и навыков, необходимых для освоения данной профессии, представлен в Едином квалификационном справочнике (ЕТКС) рабочих профессий. В связи с этим в справочнике разработан необходимый материал по формированию умений, навыков слесаря КИПиА 3-4-го разряда. Справочник будет полезен как при теоретическом и производственном обучении учащихся профессионально-технических училищ, так и самостоятельном повышении квалификации молодыми рабочими – слесарями КИПиА.

В справочник вошел материал только по наиболее распространенным и надежным средствам КИПиА, включая таблицы основных неисправностей и способы их устранения; краткий обзор принципа действия и физических основ; технические характеристики для ремонта и наладки; схемы для поверки и ремонта, а также электрические схемы и таблицы.

Для более эффективного совершенствования профессиональных знаний, умений и навыков по данной профессии рекомендуется также использовать учебник Б. И. Жарковского с Приборы автоматического контроля и регулирования», «Высшая школа», 1989 г.


Камразе А.Н. Фитерман М.Я. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика

Камразе А.Н. Фитерман М.Я. Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика

Введение

Автоматизация производства призвана коренным образом преобразовать рабочие места, сделать труд более производительным, творческим и привлекательным. Это одна из важнейших социальных задач, на которую указал XXVII съезд КПСС.

На современном этапе развития химической промышленности невозможно управлять производством без его автоматизации. Высокие температуры, давления, скорости химических реакций, большие объемы аппаратов, зависимость технико-экономических показателей производства от большого числа разнообразных факторов — все это предъявляет высокие требования к управлению производством. Если человек раньше с успехом справлялся с задачами управления, то теперь он этоrо сделать не может из-за своих ограниченных возможностей: утомляемости, субъективности в оценке возникающих ситуаций, ограниченной скорости реакции на резкие изменения режимных параметров процесса и т.п. В результате функции управления в химических производствах все в большем объеме передаются автоматическим устройствам. В двенадцатой пятилетке уровень автоматизации должен возрасти в 2 раза.

На современном производстве от оператора требуются знания не только технологии и оборудования, но и автоматических устройств контроля и управления: от простейших приборов до управляющих вычислительных машин. Оператор должен уметь за показаниями измерительных приборов «видеть» ход технологического процесса, скрытого за стенками реакторов, колонн и аппаратов, вмешиваться при необходимости в работу автоматических регуляторов, устранять простейшие неисправности. Все это невозможно сделать без знания основных принципов управления технологическими процессами, особенностей устройства и эксплуатации приборов, регуляторов и других средств автоматизации. Изучение всех этих вопросов предусмотрено в курсе «Контрольно-измерительные приборы и автоматика».

В основе книrи лежат два основных положения. Первое — обратная связь является главным средством решения практически всех задач автоматизации, как простых (измерение), так и сложных (управление). Поэтому изложение материала начинается с принципов построения автоматических систем управления и регулирования, где особое внимание уделяется роли обратной связи. Далее, в главах, посвященных техническим средствам автоматизации (промежуточным преобразователям, измерительным приборам, регуляторам, исполнительным механизмам), все они рассмотрены как следящие системы с отрицательной обратной связью. Ее применение иллюстрируется приводимыми в каждом случае структурными схемами, единообразие которых показывает, что для решения разнообразных практических задач используется одно и то же техническое решение.


90000 The English Patient Characters | GradeSaver 90001 90002 Almasy is the burned English patient who stays at the village with Hana. He was burned when his helicopter crashed — a crash engineered by the man with whose wife he was having an affair. Almasy is a slippery, cryptic character, and is not particularly adept at self-examination. The characters seem to live through him, using him to heal their own wounds, as Hana does when she chains herself to him to repair the emotional trauma at the hands of her father.Almasy seems at once regretful of the circumstances that led to his lover’s death and his own wounds and mystified by the passion that engulfed him, quite literally, in flames. Having lived a full life, he is still amazed by the consumptive power of love, and advises those around him to seek it out, even though it can be as destructive as it is beautiful. 90003 90002 Hana is a twenty-year-old nurse for the Allies during World War II. She has spent much of her life treating patients and watching them die, and she seems to have a particular affinity for death.Initially we’re not sure why Hana chains herself to the English patient in this lonely villa — we sense that she is emotionally wounded, and that she is withdrawing deeper inside herself. She is ultimately brought out by a sequence of events — all of which bring people to the villa, including Kip and Caravaggio, with whom she becomes involved in a love triangle. Hana falls in love with Kip, but he seems emotionally distanced. Almasy urges her to find that fire within and to kindle it. Ultimately it is revealed that Hana lost her father to an accident where he was burned beyond recognition, but she was too far away to save him.She never forgave herself, and chains herself to this English patient for atonement. 90003 90002 Kirpal Singh is a «sapper» (soldier) for the British, and works in demining and bomb defusion. He found a mentor in Lord Suffolk, but when Lord Suffolk died in a bomb explosion, he, like Hana, turned inwards. At the villa, Kip falls in love with Hana, but we see that deep down he is uncomfortable with his own race, and has never been comfortable being part of a culture that was subservient to the British.90003 90002 Caravaggio is a thief who had his hands amputated when he was caught during the war. He comes to the villa to try to get Hana to leave, since the place is littered with mines. Eventually, however, he falls in love with her (somewhat surprisingly, since he’s quite a bit older than her). Ultimately, Caravaggio is her practical guide, where Almasy is her ethereal guide. 90003 90002 Katharine Clifton was the wife of Geoffrey Clifton, and came on one of his expeditions just after they were married.The English patient quickly fell in love with this Oxford-educated firebrand and began an adulterous affair with her that led to both of their demises, when Geoffrey tried to kill them both in a plane crash. Katharine is stubborn and feisty, and is frustrated by Almasy’s coldness. She leaves him because he can not bear to be owned by her, but ultimately dies because of the time they spent together. When she dies, Almasy leaves her in a cave, promising to come back, but he is never able to. 90003 90002 Geoffrey Clifton is Katharine’s seemingly gregarious husband who is part of Almasy’s expedition to chart the Terzura Oasis.As a part of the aristocracy, he is fiercely protective of his wife. When he finds out that she is having an affair with Almasy, he initiates a murder-suicide plane crash that kills him and his wife and burns Almasy beyond recognition. Later, Almasy learns that Geoffrey was not just on the expedition for an adventure — he was part of British intelligence. 90003 90002 Lord Suffolk is Kirpal Singh’s mentor when he is a sapper in the bomb-defusing unit of the British Army. Kip thinks of him as the best English gentleman he has ever met — and one of the best people he has ever known, almost a surrogate father.When Lord Suffolk is blown up by a 250-kg bomb, Kip is expected to take over for him — to be the new leader of the troop — but Kip finds the shoes too big to fill and escapes. 90003 90002 Madox is the English patient’s best friend in the desert. He ultimately commits suicide because he believes the Church is promoting war instead of withdrawing from it. He seems constantly at odds with his practical and philosophical beliefs. 90003 .90000 The Literature Review | A Complete Step-by-Step Guide 90001 90002 A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. 90003 90002 Writing a literature review involves finding relevant publications (such as books and journal articles), critically analyzing them, and explaining what you found. There are five key steps: 90003 90006 90007 90008 Search 90009 for relevant literature 90010 90007 90008 Evaluate 90009 sources 90010 90007 90008 Identify 90009 themes, debates and gaps 90010 90007 90008 Outline 90009 the structure 90010 90007 90008 Write 90009 your literature review 90010 90027 90002 A good literature review does not just summarize sources — it analyzes, synthesizes, and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.90003 90030 Why write a literature review? 90031 90002 When you write a thesis, dissertation, or research paper, you will have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to: 90003 90034 90007 Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and scholarly context 90010 90007 Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research 90010 90007 Position yourself in relation to other researchers and theorists 90010 90007 Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate 90010 90043 90002 You might also have to write a literature review as a stand-alone assignment.In this case, the purpose is to evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of scholarly debates around a topic. 90003 90002 The content will look slightly different in each case, but the process of conducting a literature review follows the same steps. 90003 90030 Step 1: Search for relevant literature 90031 90002 Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic. 90003 90002 If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions.90003 90002 If you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, you will have to choose a focus and develop a central question to direct your search. Unlike a dissertation research question, this question has to be answerable without collecting original data. You should be able to answer it based only on a review of existing publications. 90003 Research question exampleWhat is the impact of social media on body image among Generation Z? 90056 Make a list of keywords 90057 90002 Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question.Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list if you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search. 90003 Keywords example 90034 90007 Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok 90010 90007 Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health 90010 90007 Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth 90010 90043 90056 Search for relevant sources 90057 90002 Use your keywords to begin searching for sources.Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include: 90003 90002 You can use boolean operators to help narrow down your search: 90003 90034 90007 90008 AND 90009 to find sources that contain more than one keyword (eg social media AND body image AND generation Z 90010 90007 90008 OR 90009 to find sources that contain one of a range of synonyms (eg generation Z OR teenagers OR adolescents) 90010 90007 90008 NOT 90009 to exclude results containing certain terms (eg apple NOT fruit) 90010 90043 90002 Read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question.When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources. 90003 90002 To identify the most important publications on your topic, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out. 90003 90030 Step 2: Evaluate and select sources 90031 90002 You probably will not be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on the topic — you’ll have to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your questions.90003 90002 For each publication, ask yourself: 90003 90034 90007 What question or problem is the author addressing? 90010 90007 What are the key concepts and how are they defined? 90010 90007 What are the key theories, models and methods? Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach? 90010 90007 What are the results and conclusions of the study? 90010 90007 How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge? 90010 90007 How does the publication contribute to your understanding of the topic? What are its key insights and arguments? 90010 90007 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research? 90010 90043 90002 Make sure the sources you use are credible, and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.90003 90002 You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholar — a high citation count means the article has been influential in the field, and should certainly be included in your literature review. 90003 90002 The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective (for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time).90003 90056 Take notes and cite your sources 90057 90002 As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. 90003 90002 It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism. It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography, where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.90003 90002 You can use our free citation generator to quickly create correct and consistent APA citations or MLA format citations. 90003 90030 Step 3: Identify themes, debates, and gaps 90031 90002 To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, you need to understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for: 90003 90034 90007 90008 Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): 90009 do certain approaches become more or less popular over time? 90010 90007 90008 Themes: 90009 what questions or concepts recur across the literature? 90010 90007 90008 Debates, conflicts and contradictions: 90009 where do sources disagree? 90010 90007 90008 Pivotal publications: 90009 are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field? 90010 90007 90008 Gaps: 90009 what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed? 90010 90043 90002 This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.90003 Example of trends and gapsIn reviewing the literature on social media and body image, you note that: 90034 90007 Most research has focused on young women. 90010 90007 There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media. 90010 90007 But there is still a lack of robust research on highly-visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat — this is a gap that you could address in your own research. 90010 90043 90030 Step 4: Outline your literature review’s structure 90031 90002 There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review.You should have a rough idea of ​​your strategy before you start writing. 90003 90002 Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically). 90003 90056 Chronological 90057 90002 The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.90003 90002 Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. 90003 90056 Thematic 90057 90002 If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. 90003 90002 For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.90003 90056 Methodological 90057 90002 If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods, you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example: 90003 90034 90007 Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research 90010 90007 Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship 90010 90007 Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources 90010 90043 90056 Theoretical 90057 90002 A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework.You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. 90003 90002 You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. 90003 90030 Step 5: Write your literature review 90031 90002 Like any other academic text, your literature review should have an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.90003 90056 Introduction 90057 90002 The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review. 90003 Dissertation literature reviewIf you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context. You can emphasize the timeliness of the topic ( «many recent studies have focused on the problem of x») or highlight a gap in the literature ( «while there has been much research on x, few researchers have taken y into consideration»).Stand-alone literature reviewIf you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review (for example, the time period of your sources), and state your objective. What new insight will you draw from the literature? 90056 Body 90057 90002 Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.90003 90002 As you write, you can follow these tips: 90003 90034 90007 90008 Summarize and synthesize: 90009 give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole 90010 90007 90008 Analyze and interpret: 90009 do not just paraphrase other researchers-add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole 90010 90007 90008 Critically evaluate: 90009 mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources 90010 90007 90008 Write in well-structured paragraphs: 90009 use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts 90010 90043 90002 Example of a paragraph in a literature review 90003 90056 Conclusion 90057 90002 In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.90003 Dissertation literature reviewIf the literature review is part of your thesis or dissertation, show how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research.Stand-alone literature reviewIf you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified. 90002 When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, do not forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting.Our quick guide to proofreading offers some useful tips and tricks! 90239 90003 90030 Frequently asked questions about literature reviews 90031 90243 90244 What is the purpose of a literature review? 90245 90246 90002 There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project: 90003 90034 90007 To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic 90010 90007 To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done 90010 90007 To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address 90010 90007 To develop your theoretical framework and methodology 90010 90007 To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic 90010 90043 90002 Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.90003 90263 90264.90000 literature | Definition, Scope, Types, & Facts 90001 90002 90003 Literature 90004, a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language, national origin, historical period, genre, and subject matter. 90005 90002 Britannica Quiz 90005 90002 Profiles of Famous Writers 90005 90002 Which of these authors is not from Africa? 90005 90002 For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, 90013 see 90014 such articles as African literature; African theatre; Oceanic literature; Western literature; Central Asian arts; South Asian arts; and Southeast Asian arts.Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject (e.g., Arabic literature, Celtic literature, Latin literature, French literature, Japanese literature, and biblical literature). 90005 90002 Definitions of the word 90013 literature 90014 tend to be circular. The 11th edition of 90013 Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 90014 considers literature to be «writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest.»The 19th-century critic Walter Pater referred to» the matter of imaginative or artistic literature «as a» transcript, not of mere fact, but of fact in its infinitely varied forms. » But such definitions assume that the reader already knows what literature is. And indeed its central meaning, at least, is clear enough. Deriving from the Latin 90013 littera 90014, «a letter of the alphabet,» literature is first and foremost humankind’s entire body of writing; after that it is the body of writing belonging to a given language or people; then it is individual pieces of writing.90005 90003 solitary confinement; literature 90004 Listen to Clinton Terrell tell how his discovery of Shakespeare’s 90013 Julius Caesar 90014 during an 18-month stint in solitary confinement started him on a path from prison to UC Berkeley, where he was majoring in English literature while struggling with the aftereffects of extreme isolation. 90028 Displayed by permission of The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. (A Britannica Publishing Partner) 90029 See all videos for this article 90002 But already it is necessary to qualify these statements.To use the word 90013 writing 90014 when describing literature is itself misleading, for one may speak of «oral literature» or «the literature of preliterate peoples.» The art of literature is not reducible to the words on the page; they are there solely because of the craft of writing. As an art, literature might be described as the organization of words to give pleasure. Yet through words literature elevates and transforms experience beyond «mere» pleasure. Literature also functions more broadly in society as a means of both criticizing and affirming cultural values.90005 Get exclusive access to content from our тисяча сімсот шістьдесят вісім First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today 90034 The scope of literature 90035 90002 Literature is a form of human expression. But not everything expressed in words-even when organized and written down-is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative-technical, scholarly, journalistic-would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics. Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art.Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not. The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize. The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all. 90005 90002 The purest (or, at least, the most intense) literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse.Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetry, because the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form. Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. Many novels-certainly all the world’s great novels-are literature, but there are thousands that are not so considered. Most great dramas are considered literature (although the Chinese, possessors of one of the world’s greatest dramatic traditions, consider their plays, with few exceptions, to possess no literary merit whatsoever).90005 90002 The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio. All of the world’s classic surveys of history can stand as noble examples of the art of literature, but most historical works and studies today are not written primarily with literary excellence in mind, though they may possess it, as it were, by accident. 90005 90002 The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: its subject matter was of comparatively minor importance.Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalism, although there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists. Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts. 90005 90002 Some personal documents (autobiographies, diaries, memoirs, and letters) rank among the world’s greatest literature. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer.Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope. 90005 90002 Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The 90013 Dialogues 90014 of Plato (4th century bc) are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the 90013 Meditations 90014 of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance. An excellent example is Gilbert White’s 90013 Natural History and Antiquities of Selbourne 90014 (1789). 90005 90002 Oratory, the art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art.The oratory of the American Indian, for instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory. Rome’s great orator Cicero was to have a decisive influence on the development of English prose style. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is known to every American schoolchild. Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art. Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion.The test in individual cases would seem to be one of enduring satisfaction and, of course, truth. Indeed, it becomes more and more difficult to categorize literature, for in modern civilization words are everywhere. Man is subject to a continuous flood of communication. Most of it is fugitive, but here and there-in high-level journalism, in television, in the cinema, in commercial fiction, in westerns and detective stories, and in plain, expository prose-some writing, almost by accident, achieves an aesthetic satisfaction, a depth and relevance that entitle it to stand with other examples of the art of literature.90005 .90000 Kip / Kirpal Singh Character Analysis in The English Patient 90001 90002 An Indian sapper during World War II and Hana’s lover. Kip is a Sikh from Punjab, and he joins an experimental bomb unit led by Lord Suffolk, an «eccentric» Englishman. Kip grows close with both Suffolk and Hardy, Kip’s second-in-command, who teaches him Western songs and customs. In a reflection of colonial-era racism, the men in Kip’s unit hesitate to call him «sir» as his rank dictates, and he is treated as an «anonymous member of another race.»Kip is received as an» other, «both in the military and later at the Italian villa. Kip immerses himself in Western culture and practices, and even develops a deep love for English tea, but he is never accepted as an equal in the eyes of the white Westerners. Attention is constantly drawn to Kip’s brown skin, and his turban serves as a physical symbol of his Indian identity. Hana is intrigued and attracted to Kip’s dark skin, finding him exotic, while Caravaggio is initially critical of Kip because of his race and cultural differences.Hana even tries to keep Kip away from the English patient, fearing they will not get along, but they, too, develop a deep friendship. Kip has, in his efforts to conform to Western society, developed an affinity for Englishmen. Yet, at the climax of the novel, Kip learns of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and threatens to kill the English patient. The tragic bombing of Japan opens Kip’s eyes to the racism and injustice of British colonialism, and he considers the English patient to be a representation of England and their systemic oppression and abuse of Asia.Kip does not kill the English patient, but Kip strips himself of his Western clothing and leaves the villa, and all of Europe. Kip returns to India, where he embraces his native culture and lives a full and happy life. Kip’s character highlights the racism of colonial-era society and underscores Ondaatje’s central argument that despite efforts to conform to the Western world, those from the East will always be viewed as «other» and inferior by those in the West. 90003 .

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